Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins, are giant y-shaped proteins that recognize and aid in the removal of foreign antigens such as viruses and bacteria. You can learn more about antibodies with a click on this site.
Image Source: Google
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM are the five primary types of antibodies found in mammals. Humans have four IgG subtypes and two IgA subtypes.
Plasma cells, which are produced from B-cells in the immune system, produce antibodies. Antibodies are considered part of the humoral immune system since they can dwell freely in the bloodstream or attached to cell membranes.
Every antibody identifies a different foreign antigen. This is because each antibody’s two “Y” tips are distinct, allowing different antibodies to attach to different foreign antigens.
When an antibody binds to a bacteria or virus, it marks it for attack by immune cells like killer T-cells. Antibodies can sometimes directly neutralize the foreign body.
The humoral immune system’s primary role is the generation of antibodies by B-cells. Autoimmune disorders can usually be traced to antibodies that bind the body’s own proteins or epitopes, and these types of antibodies can be detected through serological blood tests.
Due to the amazing specificity of antibodies, they have some important practical applications in both medicine for the detection of HIV and other viruses in blood, and in research to purify and detect proteins in the study of molecular biology.
For example, currently, medicine is using biotechnologically designed monoclonal antibodies which work as an antibody therapy. These methods are being employed recently and are the result of numerous clinical trials in a number of diseases including cancer, and rheumatoid arthritis.